In vivo pharmacology

​Complete in vivo study solutions

We offer complete solutions for determining in vivo efficacy, mode-of-action and pharmacokinetics of your compound. Get confidence in your in vivo study design and in-life endpoints by tapping into our extensive catalogue of in vivo methodologies.

We have expert hands-on experience with a wide variety of commercially available rodent models of human diseases. Furthermore, we have established and benchmarked a number of in-house models, which are always readily available.

Related Links

Dive into our pool of related services and capabilities:


Main offerings

Drug administration
  • Peripheral drug administration (subcutaneous, peroral, intraperitoneal, intravenous, intratracheal, topical)
  • Osmotic minipump implantation
  • Central drug administration (intracerebroventricular, intrathecal, brain site-specific injection)
  • In-diet compound administration
Metabolic measures
  • Real-time food and water intake
  • Real-time locomotor and running wheel activity
  • Energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry
  • Whole-body composition using EchoMRI
  • Urinary and fecal sampling in metabolic cages

Download flyer: Real-time food intake analysis

Glucose homeostasis
  • Glucose tolerance tests (oral, intraperitoneal, intravenous)
  • Real-time assessment of blood glucose
  • Insulin tolerance test
  • Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp
Cardiovascular measures
  • Real-time assessment of blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure) and heart rate
  • Real-time telemetry electrocardiogram (ECG) recording
  • Echocardiography for cardiac functional imaging
Procedures for mode-of-action assessment
  • Stereotaxic drug administration
  • Adenovirus-mediated target knock-down or overexpression
  • Bariatric surgery
  • Selective vagal deafferentation
  • Brain site-specific lesions
  • Paired feeding
  • Gastric emptying
  • Pica behavior
  • Conditioned taste aversion
Biofluid sampling for biochemistry and drug exposure
  • Blood, urine, stool, bile, cerebrospinal fluid
Other in vivo measures
  • Lung function (spirometry)
  • Kidney function (glomerular filtration rate)
  • Liver biopsy biochemistry and histology
  • Motor coordination (rotarod)

In-house in vivo capabilities and services

In vivo pharmacology experts

Our readiness, expertise and flexibility enables us to continuously refine and broaden our in vivo model catalogue to meet our customers’ demands.

Customized in vivo data packages

Our technical services include numerous tools to provide you with pivotal information about compound efficacy on a wide array of in-life parameters. We also offer various in vivo methodologies to address the mode-of-action of your compound. 

Post in vivo data packages

Following completion of the in vivo phase, our expert tissue and biofluid sampling techniques enable us to perform high-quality biochemistry, histology and genetic profiling as well as pharmacokinetics.

A selection of our in vivo technical services

Echocardiography for cardiac functional imaging

Echocardiography provides sensitive means to characterize the progression of heart failure in preclinical models and demonstrate the effect of the studied compounds. Our expertise ranges from standard measurements of cardiac dysfunction (ejection fraction) to strain imaging.

Real-time food and water intake

Our skilled veterinarians and animal technicians perform online behavioral monitoring in group-housed animals. This allows for detailed assessment of individual animal feeding and water intake kinetics in pharmacological studies.

Download flyer: Real-time food intake analysis

AAALAC accreditation

Gubra has earned the AAALAC accreditation, demonstrating our commitment to responsible animal care and use. AAALAC International is a nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through voluntary accreditation and assessment programs. Our accreditation is valid for three years, incl. 2023.

Read more about the AAALAC accreditation programme here.

Animal welfare

Gubra is dedicated to ensuring optimal animal welfare and all studies are licensed by the Danish Animal Experimentation Inspectorate and conducted in accordance with the Danish Animal Experimentation Act (BEK nr 12 of 7/01/2016), which is stricter and therefore fully compliant with the European directive (2010/63/EU) and internationally accepted principles for the care and use of laboratory animals.

Gubra applies the 3R principles (replacement, reduction and refinement) to all animal studies. We believe that laboratory animal welfare is an ethical responsibility that encompasses all aspects of animal well-being, including proper housing, clinical and behavioral management, nutrition, disease management and treatment.