Histology and Stereology


The Gubra approach
We offer complete histology solutions on any tissue in animal models or human samples. Our expertise allows us to provide custom-made solutions to your needs – either using tissue from your experiments or tissue from in vivo studies performed at Gubra.

We offer:

Histological analyses

Pancreas biology

Beta and alpha cells

Beta and alpha cells

Amylase (exocrine trissue)

Amylase (exocrine trissue)

Duct cells (CK-20) and ki67

Duct cells (CK-20) and ki67

At Gubra we have years of experience with the stereological assessment of the pancreas using a panel of different immunohistochemical markers – ranging from endocrine cell dynamics to changes in exocrine acinar and ductal compartments.

cFos immunohistochemistry

cFos immunohistochemistry used to demonstrate compound induces activation of cells in central areas. Image analyses can be applied to provide semi-quantiative assessment of activation levels.

Gut morphometry

GLP-2 positive L-cells in the gut

GLP-2 positive L-cells in the gut

5-HT positive EC cells in the gut

5-HT positive EC cells in the gut

Gut mucosa volume following RYGB surgery

L-cell numbers following RYGB surgery

As an important component of the company name GUt histology has been one of our main focus areas since 2008. These investigations have enabled us to provide novel information about gut plasticity and endocrine changes in different animal models and following surgical interventions.

Slide Scanner

Moving beyond the traditional microscope

Our slide scanner provides an alternative approach to the traditional microscope. Using our Aperio Scanscope AT400, we can scan a sample and enable you to view it immediately from your own computer by remote web-based access. This method enables you to do rapid image analysis, zoom in and out and get an in-depth look at your sample.

The slide scanner offers a number of key advantages:

1 Facilitates cross-site or multi-location collaboration:
Facilitates cross-site or multi-location collaboration: Your slides are placed on a secure server where your staff can access and view them without have to send heavy files back and forth. You can also have an external pathologist examine and score your sections remotely if you like.
2 High-resolution images make for in-depth analysis:
After creating whole-slide digital scans of your entire glass slide, you can work in the slide, area-by-area, section-by-section and zoom in and out as needed.

Looking for histopathology?

We have several, highly qualified pathologists whom we use as consultants on studies requiring histopathology.


What is Stereology?
And why is it relevant for your study? Watch our new film to learn about the pitfalls of conventional methods and see why we apply stereological methods for all quantitative histological analyses.

A different approach to quantitative histology

Stereology is a set of geometrically and statistically founded methods designed to extract quantitative information about a 3D structure, based on measurements on 2D-cut sections.

Stereology vs. Conventional Histology
Conventional methods usually involve assumptions about the size, shape and distribution of cells in the organ. Such assumptions are seldom true, and may lead to systematic deviations that cannot be corrected.

Stereology: Reveal Reality
In contrast to these conventional methods, stereology utilizes systematic, uniform, random sampling to provide unbiased, quantitative data on a number of areas, including the volume, area, numbers, length and size of an organ.

The process:


Why we use it

There is a popular misconception about the body – that it is uniform and homogenous. Yet the reality is quite the opposite. Organs are not uniform in shape, and the concentration of cells changes throughout the organism. So to give a true representation of an organ’s cellular distribution, we use stereology and glean three-dimensional information from two-dimensional sections.

A three-dimensional structure looks completely different in a two-dimensional section: volume is seen as area, length is seen as dots and surfaces are seen as boundaries. Using stereology, we are able to extrapolate actual three-dimensional information.

Some object to this approach, claiming that stereology is too time-consuming and expensive. Our response is that it doesn’t have to be. The key is in the experiment design. We have optimized sampling methods that save time and reduce costs. Moreover, our methods avoid unnecessary cuts and the loss of expensive material, should you need it for future testing.

CNS Stereology

See the extended version here (2:25)

Neurodegenerative diseases

Gubra is highly experienced with certain CNS disease models, such as the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson´s disease, assessing the correlation of animal rotation behavior with TH-neuron loss, as well as structural changes in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease models.

We offer:

  • Lesion size
  • Tumor size and numbers
  • Neuron number (total numbers, NOT density)
  • Plaque and tangle load

Amyloid beta-plaque load in APP/PS1 mice

Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease

The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide improves memory function and increases hippocampal CA1 neuronal numbers in a senescence-accelerated mouse model (SAMP8) of Alzheimer’s disease.

Number of trials to first avoidance


Sample 50% back-crossed

SAMP8 4 months old

SAMP8 vehicle

SAMP8 liraglutide 100 µg/kg

SAMP8 liraglutide 500 µg/kg

Number of trials to first criterion


Total number of CA1 neurons


Let's work together

If you have a study, and you want to know if stereology can be a useful method for gaining accurate results and true quantitative data, give us a call. By applying a methodical approach to sampling, we will help you get useful, usable results.

Contact us

Contact us before you harvest
We often receive inquiries from organizations interested in using stereology, yet they have already harvested the organ, which, in many cases, impacts our ability to apply stereology in a cost- efficient manner. So if you’re interested in (or if you wish to investigate the application of stereology in your study) contact us as early in the process as possible, so we are in the best position to advise you.

The business value
of science Read

We know our results ultimately have to generate value for your company. That’s why we focus on the quality and completeness of the data we provide. We choose the methodology that will yield the most usable results for your company. Scientific research requires care, accuracy and precision. This is the delicate balance we walk. Pursuing methods with scientific merit to give you results that you can use, and that will ultimately generate value for your business.

assurance Read

At Gubra, we are committed to high quality deliverables. Through the strength of our quality systems and processes, from administration and study conduction to data management and reporting, we provide structured, professional and experienced services. All critical processes are governed by Standard Operating Procedures that along with quality control documentation are controlled by our Quality Assurance Group. Consistent training and evaluation processes throughout the organization ensure Gubras dynamic and evolving Quality Assurance System.

Why we
keep it simple Read

Just because it’s science, doesn’t mean the research has to be complicated. One of our mantras is the need to get clear, simple answers from research. It’s true, with limited time and resources and infinite pressure to produce results, it can be very tempting to get the most bang for your proverbial buck by trying to include as many endpoints in a study as possible. Yet, what often happens with this approach is that you get inconclusive results that require further investigation, taking more time and using more resources. By taking a straightforward approach to study design, we ensure our customers get clear answers they can use.